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大同云冈石窟--分窟介绍


第一窟(公元470—493年)
   第一、二窟是一组塔庙式双窟。第一窟中央雕出两层方形塔柱。后壁主像为弥勒。东、西、南壁上部雕天宫伎乐与禅定坐佛,中部为一列龛像,东壁下部北端是睒子本生故事画面。南壁窟门两侧为维摩、文殊像。
CAVE 1(A.D.470--493)
 Cave 1 and cave 2 from a pair of Buddhist cave temples. In the center of cave 1 is carved a square pillar in the shape of a two-storeyed pagoda. The main statue on the bank wall is maitreya. On the upper sections of the east, west and south walls are statues of celestial musicians and a seated Buddha in meditation. On the middle section are carved a row of niches with statues.and at the north part of the lower section on the east wall are two reliefs depicting syama jataka. On the two reveals of the southern entrance are statues of the bodhisa vimalakirti and manjusri.

第二窟(公元470—493年)
  第二窟的形制、布局与一窟略同。中央为方形三层塔柱,每层之间以屋檐相隔,屋脊、瓦垅、椽柱、额枋、斗拱、叉手等仿木结构建筑雕刻,是研究北魏佛塔的重要实物资料。窟顶南部浮雕团莲及飞天图案。
CAVE 2 (A.D.470-493)
 The design and form of cave 2 are similar to those of cave 1. A pillar in the shape of a three-storeyed pagoda stands in the center .the caves are carved in between every two storeyes of the stone pagoda. The ridges of the roof, the rows of the tiles, the rafters and outer parts of the pagoda are the carvings to resemble the wooden buildings which afford valuable material for studying the pagodas of the northern Wei dynasty on the south part of the ceiling are the reliefs of lotus flowers and flying apsarases.
第三窟
  该窟是云冈石窟规模最大的洞窟,史称灵岩寺。窟前立壁高约25米。北魏时期,仅凿出前、后室南部的窟形及前室上层的弥勒龛和东西双塔,其它部分因迁都洛阳而停工。后室唐代初年雕刻的三尊造像,面相圆润、肌肉丰满、冠饰华丽、衣纹流畅。
CAVE 3
 This is the largest of all the caves in YunGang, named LingYan temple in the past. The face of the cliff is about 25 meters high. The construction started in the northern Wei period, the whole cave hadn’t been completed before the capital was moved to LuoYang , except for the front chamber, the south part of the back chamber, the nich on the upper part of the front chamber and the two pagodas. The three Buddhist statues in the back chamber were carved afterwards in the Tang dynasty. 
第四窟(公元494-525年)
  中央雕长方形塔柱,塔柱四面开龛造像。南壁窟门上方原雕有正光年间(公元520-525年)题记,是云冈石窟最晚的北 魏铭记。窟门地面低于窟内1.4米,系未完工所致,这为了解石窟开凿方法和造像雕刻程序等问题提供了实物依据。
CAVE 4(A.D.494-525)
 In the centre is a square pillar with niches cut on its four sides to house statues. Over the entrance, there is an inscription dating from the zhengguang period (A.D.520-525). This is the latest inscription in the northern Wei period found in the YunGang caves. The bottom of the entrance is 1.4 meter lower than the inside ground, which indicates that this cave was not completed in history. This has provided reliable material evidence for the study of carving methods and procedures .

第五窟(公元470-493年)
  第五、六窟为一组双窟,位于云冈石窟中部,窟分前、后室。第五窟后室主像为三世佛,北壁中央释迦坐像高逾17米,是云冈石窟最大的佛像。窟内壁面满雕龛像,拱门两侧的菩提树下雕刻二佛对坐像。两窟前室五间四层木结构楼阁,为清初顺治八年(公元1651年)重建。
CAVE 5(A.D.470-493)
  Cave 5 forms a pair with cave 6, and each has the front and back chambers. The main statues in the bank chamber of cave 5 show the thikala buddhas, the seated statue of Sakyamuni , 17 meters high in the middle of the wall is the largest Buddha in the YunGang caves. All over the inner surface of the cave are carved with niches and Buddhist statues. On both reveals of the arched doorway are two buddhas sitting face to face under a bodhi tree. In front of these two caves stands a four-storeyed wooden structure rebuilt in the 8th year of ShunZhi’s reign at the begining of the Qing dynasty(1651A.D.)

第六窟(公元470-493年)
  此窟规模宏大,雕饰富丽。后室中央雕直通窟顶的二层方形塔柱,上层四面雕立佛,四角雕塔;下层四面开龛造像,佛龛内外两隅和窟内东、南、西壁以及明窗两侧,浮雕33幅描写释迦牟尼从诞生到成道的佛传故事画面。
CAVE 6(A.D.470-493年)
 In the centre of the back chamber stands a square pillar in the shape of a two-storeyed pagoda .which reaches up to the ceiling. At each corner of its top storey is a carved little pagoda. Niches are cut on the four sides of each storey to house statues. On both side of the niches and on the lower section of the pillar, on the east , south and west walls, as well as on the two reveals of the window are 33 reliefs depicting stories of Sakyamuny’s life from his birth to his enlightenment.

第七窟(公元470-493年)
  第七、八窟为一组双窟,窟前有三层木构窟檐,窟分前、后室。后室北壁上层主像是三世佛。东、西、南壁列四层佛龛,窟顶饰平棊藻井图案。南壁门拱上方六供养天人像,雕刻十分精美,明窗两侧山中雕坐禅比丘像,是研究北魏佛教思想的重要史料。
CAVE 7( A.D. 470-493)
 This cave forms a pair with cave 8. In front of this cave is a three-storeyed wooden structure. Cave 7 has the front and back chambers. The main statues on the upper sections of the north wall in back chamber are the trikala buddhas, on the east, west and south walls are four rows of niches. The caission ceiling is decorated on the top of the cave. The six celestial donors over the arch of the door in the south wall are exquisitely carved. The images of Sky Bhiksu in meditation on the two reveals of the window are the important historical material for studying Buddhist ideology in the northern Wei dynasty.
第八窟(公元470-493年)
  第八窟形制、布局与第七窟相同。门拱两侧雕护法天神像,东侧摩醯首罗天,三头八臂,骑白牛,手托日月、持弓箭、执葡萄,其右脚雕塑得非常逼真;西侧鸠摩罗天,面似童子,擎鸡、乘孔雀。两像的造型与雕刻技巧十分成熟。
CAVE 8 (A.D.470-493)
 The design and form of this cave are similar to those of cave 7. The celestial gardians are carved on the two reveals of the entrance. The east one is a statue of siva (mahesvara) riding on a white bull, which has three heads and eight arms holding the sun, the moom, bows & arrows as well as grapes. The west one is a statue of Vishnu in appearance of a boy (Kumarkadeva) riding on a peacock with his hands holding chicken. Both statues are very skillfully shaped and engraved.
第九窟(公元470-493年)
  第九、十窟为一组双窟,分前后室。前室南壁凿成八角列柱,后室窟门上方凿明窗。第九窟前室东西壁雕出三间仿木构建筑的佛龛,窟顶饰团莲及飞天。后室北壁主像为释迦佛,东、西各雕胁侍菩萨,余壁雕刻三层表现因缘故事的佛龛。  
CAVE 9 (A.D.470-493)
 This cave forms a pair with cave 10, and also consists of the front and back chambers. On the south wall of the front chamber are carved Octagonal pillars. On the east and west walls of the front chamber of cave 9are niches carved in the form of three-roomed house. The ceiling of the cave is decorated with flying celestials and lotus blossom. The main statue on the north wall in the back chamber is Sakyamuni Buddha and bodhisattvas are sculpted on the east and west sides. On the other walls are carved niches depicting the Jataka stories about the principal and subsidiary causes.

第十窟(公元470-493年)
  第十窟前室北壁门楣刻莲花、缠枝忍冬、人物、鸟兽纹组成的图案。上端的须弥山,山峰平列整齐,山腰盘绕二龙。山中的树木、动物及下层山间的化生童子生动活泼。窟顶的飞天,轻盈潇洒,飘带飞扬。后室北壁主像是弥勒佛。
CAVE 10 (A.D.470-493)
 The lintel of the northern entrance of the front chamber is carved with designs of lotus flowers, interlocking acanthuses, human figures, birds and animals. At its upper part is mount sumeru with peaks in line on the top and two colling dragons in the middle of the mount. The trees and animals in the mount and the incarnated boys at the bottom of the mount are vividly carved. Flying apsarases on the ceiling are sculpted in lithe and graceful postures with ribbons flying around them. The main image on the north wall in the back chamber is maitreya.
第十一窟(公元470-493年)
  窟中央凿方形塔柱,四面上下开龛造像。南面上龛为弥勒像,其余均为释迦立像。南面下龛立佛两侧的胁侍菩萨,从风格上看似为辽代遗刻。东壁上层有北魏太和七年(公元483年)造像题记,为云冈石窟最早的造像铭记,是研究石窟开凿历史的重要资料。
CAVE 11(A.D.470-493)
 In the centre of this cave stands a square pagoda pillar with niches and statues on each of the four sides of both upper and lower sections. Apart from the image of maitreya in the upper niche on the south side, the others are all the statues of standing Sakyamuni judging by their style. The two bodhisattvas on both sides of the standing Buddha in the lower niches on the south side of the pagoda seem to be made in the Liao dynasty. The upper section of the east wall bears an inscription dated from the 7th year of TaiHe( A.D.483) of the northern Wei dynasty.
第十二窟(公元470-493年)
  窟分前、后室,前室外立壁雕庑殿顶饰及列柱四楹,构成一座三间殿堂式的建筑。前室壁面凿有各种龛形及佛像。窟顶凿平棊藻井,北壁雕一列天宫伎乐,东、西、南壁雕八身夜叉像。所持箜篌、琵琶、排箫、笛、埙、鼓等乐器,是研究音乐史的重要资料。
CAVE 12(A.D.470-493)
 This cave is devided into the front and back chambers. The outer wall surface of the front chamber is carved with wood-imitated roofs and eaves as well as four columns. Thus resembling a three-room hall. On the walls of the front chamber are carved various niches and buddhas. Its ceiling is decorated with caisson design. The top part of the north wall is decorated with a carved band of celestial musicians. And on the east ,south and west sides, there are eight images of yaksha, holding konghou, pipa and other musical instruments.

第十三窟(公元470-493年)
  主像为交脚弥勒菩萨,头戴宝冠,佩臂钏、手镯,胸前佩蛇形饰物。左手抚膝,右手上举,臂下部雕一托杠力士像。南壁门拱上方的七佛立像,著褒衣博带。东壁龛形多样,雕饰华丽。明窗两侧的菩萨形体丰满健美,雕刻细腻精巧。
CAVE 13(A.D.470-493)
 The main image is a cross-legged maitreya, wearing a jeweled crown, a bracelet and a snake-shaped necklace. His right arm is supported from underneath by vajra. Above the entrance of the south wall are the sculptured figures of seven standing buddhas, wearing loose gowns with wide ribbons. On each reveal of the window is a bodhisattva with a plump and strong body in exquisite craftsmanship.
第十四窟(公元494-525年)
  窟内的四根列柱已崩塌,西壁保存较好,其中有单层的塔式建筑雕刻和《维摩诘经》中的香积品故事。
CAVE 14 (A.D.494-525)
 The four pillars insides the cave have collapsed. Only the west wall has been survived and kept in a fairly good condition, which shows a carved building in the shape of a one-storeyed pagoda, and depicts the story of Vimalakirti.

第十七窟(公元460-470年)
  北壁雕交脚弥勒,高15.6米,东壁雕坐佛,西壁雕立佛,合称三世佛。西壁龛内右侧的供养天像,头束高髻,臂绕帔帛,下著长裙,双手捧莲蕾,造型优美,形象生动。明窗东侧后期补刻太和十三年(公元498年)的佛龛,是研究云冈石窟雕刻艺术发展史的形象资料。
CAVE 17(A.D.460-470)
 A cross-legged maitreya, 15.6 metres high, is carved on the north wall, a seated Buddha on the east wall, And a standing Buddha on the west wall, which are generally named “The trikala buddhas”. The offering celestial on the right side of the niche in the west wall is vividly sculpted and gracefully shaped, with a hair-bun on his head, A wide ribbon around his arms ,long skirt around his lower body and a lotus bud in his hands. A niche on the east reveal of the window was carved in the 13th year of Tai He’s reign.

第十八窟(公元460-470年)
  主像是三世佛,北壁释迦立像,高15.5米,身著袒右肩式千佛袈裟,魁伟高大,慈蔼端庄,右手持衣角举于胸前,手部雕刻细腻,质感强烈。东壁上层的弟子雕像,或深目高鼻,面貌苍老;或嘴角上翘,笑容可掬;或双手扪胸,心领神会;慈容憨态,令人称绝。
CAVE 18(A.D.460-470)
 The main images are the trikala buddhas. The Sakyamuni buddhs, 15.5 metres high on the north wall wears a kasaya with a design of thousand buddhas. His hand,exquisitely carved, holds a corner of his kasaya up to hia chest. The upper section of the east wall is covered with a group of Buddhist disciples, one having keep eye sockets and a high nose with elderly appearance; one being radiant in smile with his mouth corners turning upwards; and other wearing a look of thorough understanding. The vivid expression of every disciple is absolutely wonderful.

十九窟(公元460-470年)
  主像是三世佛,主窟中的释迦坐像,高16.8米,是云冈石窟中的第二大佛。其面相方圆,两耳垂肩,双肩齐挺,著袒右肩式袈裟,衣边饰折带纹,内著僧祗支,边雕环状忍冬纹条饰。窟外东西凿出两个耳洞,各雕一尊八米的倚坐佛像。这种三世佛布局,颇为新颖。
CAVE 19 (公元460-470年)
 The main images are the trikala buddhas .the seated Sakyamuni in the main cave is 16.8 metres high, the second largest in the YunGang caves. Wearing a well-decorated kasaya, he has a square-round face, broad shoulders and long earlobes down to his shoulders. On the east and west sides of the main cave are two adjacent chambers, each housing a seated Buddha. Such kind of display of the trikala buddhas is quite unique.
第二十窟(公元460-470年)
  窟前壁约辽代以前已崩塌,造像露天。主像是三世佛,北壁凿释迦坐像,高13.7米,面相丰腴,两肩宽厚,造型雄伟,气魄浑厚,是云冈石窟雕刻艺术的代表作品。东侧的立佛像著通肩衣,体态端庄,西侧的立佛像早已毁。
CAVE 20 (A.D.460-470)
 The statue are no longer roofed over due to the collapse of its front wall before the Liao dynasty. The main images are the trikala buddhas. On the north wall is a statue of seated sakyamuni, 13.7 metres high. this Buddha, with his plump face and broad shoulders, is a typical example of the sculpture art of the YunGang caves. A standing Buddha on the east side looks dignified in a kasaya. The other one on the west side was damaged long time ago.

第21-45窟(公元494-525年)
  西部窟群,其窟龛的类型繁杂,有四壁三龛窟、四壁重龛窟、四壁列龛窟及塔庙窟等,样式变化显著,造像风格多以清瘦为特征,具有浓厚的汉化格调。其中第三十八窟北壁下层“踏橦杂技”浮雕,是研究北魏杂技的形象资料。
CAVE21-45(A.D.494-525)
 The caves in the west section of the YunGang grotto site vary greatly in style, such as those with three niches, those with niches in two layers or those with thousands of little tiny niches as well as those in a temple style with a pagoda-shaped pillar in the centre. The statues, characterized by their slim appearance, show a strong style of the Han nationality. The acrrobatic performances are carved in relief on the lower part of the north wall of cave 38.
第三十九窟
  在西部诸窟中,第三十九窟是最大的洞窟之一。窟门为圆拱型,内饰忍冬纹。窟中上方开东、西两个明窗。
  窟内四壁排列有序布满佛像,中央雕中心塔柱。塔柱分为五层,每层四面均分五间,柱间均雕一龛,龛内分别雕坐佛、二佛并坐、倚坐佛、交脚菩萨。塔柱建筑构建雕刻准确,保存完整,是研究中国早期佛塔的重要资料。
CAVE 39
 Cave 39 is one of the largest caves in the western section of the grottoes. There is an entrance in an arched shape, on the inner surface of which is decorated with an acanthus design. On the upper part of each eastern and western walls is an opening used as a window.
 All over the four sides of its inner walls can been seen Buddhist statues in line. In the middle of the cave stands a central pillar in a shape of a five-storeyed pagoda. On each side of every story are four columns, in between which is respectively carved a shrine. Inside each shrine is sculpted an image of either a seated Buddha, or two buddhas sitting together, or a Buddha sitting cross-legged.

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